As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on October 25, 2021.
Registration No. 333-259889
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Claude Dornier Straße 1
Bldg. 335, 82234
Telephone: +49 160 9704 6857
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
C/O Lilium Aviation Inc.
2385 N.W. Executive Center Drive, Suite 300
Boca Raton, Florida 33431
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Dr. Christoph Rödter
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933. Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.
The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered
Amount to be
Class A ordinary shares, nominal value of €0.12 per share (“Class A Shares”)
Class A Shares underlying warrants
Class A Shares underlying options
Class A Shares
Class A Shares underlying warrants
Warrants to purchase Class A Shares
|(1)||Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, includes an indeterminable number of additional Class A Shares that may be issued to prevent dilution from stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions that could affect the Class A Shares to be offered by the selling securityholders.|
|(2)||Includes 24,413,065 Class A ordinary shares, nominal value of €0.12 per share (“Class A Shares”) of the registrant Lilium N.V., a Dutch public limited liability company (naamloze vennootschap) (the “Company”) issuable upon conversion of 24,413,065 outstanding Class B ordinary shares, nominal value of €0.36 per share (“Class B Shares”) of the Company.|
|(3)||Estimated solely to calculate the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(c) of the Securities Act on the basis of the average of the high and low sales prices of the Class A Shares as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on September 28, 2021.|
|(4)||Includes up to (i) 7,060,000 Class A Shares issuable upon the exercise of 7,060,000 warrants (the “Private Warrants”) originally issued by Qell in a private placement transaction in connection with the initial public offering (“IPO”) of Qell Acquisition Corp. (“Qell”), and converted into warrants to purchase Class A Shares at the closing of the Business Combination (as defined below) at an exercise price of $11.50 per Class A Share, (ii) 12,650,000 Class A Shares that are issuable upon the exercise of 12,650,000 warrants (the “Public Warrants” and, together with the Private Warrants, the “SPAC Warrants”) originally issued to public shareholders of Qell in its IPO, and converted into warrants to purchase Class A Shares at the closing of the Business Combination at an exercise price of $11.50 per Class A Share and (iii) 1,800,000 Class A Shares issuable upon exercise of warrants to purchase Class A Shares issued to a commercial counterparty of the Company at an exercise price of €0.12 per Class A Share (the “Azul Warrants” and, together with the SPAC Warrants, the “Warrants”).|
|(5)||Estimated solely for the purpose of the calculation of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(g), based on the weighted average exercise price of the Warrants of $10.55 per share.|
|(6)||Includes up to 6,219,889 Class A Shares that are issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options to purchase Class A Shares held by certain of the Company’s current and former directors and employees (the “Specified Options”).|
|(7)||Estimated solely for the purpose of the calculation of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(h), based on the weighted average exercise price of the options of $0.01 per share.|
|(8)||Consists of the resale of up to 201,805,118 Class A Shares, consisting of up to (i) 129,292,473 Class A Shares that were issued on completion of the Business Combination (the “Business Combination”) between the Company, Qell Acquisition Corp., a Cayman Islands exempted company (“Qell”), and Queen Cayman Merger LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company and wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (“Merger Sub”), (ii) 24,413,065 Class A Shares issuable upon conversion of 24,413,065 outstanding Class B Shares, (iii) 45,000,000 Class A Shares that were issued to certain securityholders in connection with the closing of a private placement offering concurrent with the closing of the Business Combination (the “PIPE Shares”), (iv) 879,691 Class A Shares issued in connection with certain equity compensation arrangements and (v) 2,219,889 Class A Shares that are issuable upon the exercise of certain of the Specified Options.|
|(9)||The registration fee for the issuance of the 24,413,065 Class A Shares issuable upon conversion of outstanding Class B Shares and the 2,219,889 Class A Shares issuable upon the exercise of certain of the Specified Options has been calculated above.|
|(10)||Consists of the resale of up to (i) 7,060,000 Class A Shares issuable upon exercise of the Private Warrants and (ii) 1,800,000 Class A Shares issuable upon exercise of the Azul Warrants.|
|(11)||The registration fee for the Class A Shares issuable upon exercise of the Private Warrants and the Azul Warrants has been calculated above.|
|(12)||Represents the resale of 7,060,000 Private Warrants.|
|(13)||In accordance with Rule 457(g), the entire registration fee for the warrants is allocated to the Class A Shares underlying the warrants, and no separate fee is payable for the warrants.|
|(14)||The registrant previously paid a registration fee of $260,941 in connection with its Registration Statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-259889) filed on September 29, 2021. The remaining $3,797 has been paid herewith.|
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
Subject to Completion, dated October 25, 2021
The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. Neither we nor the selling securityholders may sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Up to 201,805,118 Class A Shares
Up to 27,729,889 Class A Shares Issuable Upon Exercise of Warrants
Up to 7,060,000 Warrants
This prospectus relates to the issuance by us of an aggregate of up to 52,142,954 of our Class A ordinary shares, nominal value €0.12 per share (“Class A Shares”), which consists of up to (i) 24,413,065 Class A Shares issuable upon conversion of our 24,413,065 outstanding Class B ordinary shares, nominal value of €0.36 per share (“Class B Shares”), (ii) 7,060,000 Class A Shares issuable upon the exercise of 7,060,000 warrants (the “Private Warrants”) originally issued by Qell in a private placement transaction in connection with the initial public offering (“IPO”) of Qell Acquisition Corp. (“Qell”), and converted into warrants to purchase Class A Shares at the closing of the Business Combination (as defined below) at an exercise price of $11.50 per Class A Share, (iii) up to 12,650,000 Class A Shares that are issuable upon the exercise of 12,650,000 warrants (the “Public Warrants” and, together with the Private Warrants, the “SPAC Warrants”) originally issued to public shareholders of Qell in its IPO, and converted into warrants to purchase Class A Shares at the closing of the Business Combination at an exercise price of $11.50 per Class A Share, (iv) 1,800,000 Class A Shares issuable upon exercise of warrants to purchase Class A Shares issued to a commercial counterparty of the Company at an exercise price of €0.12 per Class A Share (the “Azul Warrants” and, together with the SPAC Warrants, the “Warrants”) and (v) up to 6,219,889 Class A Shares that are issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options to purchase Class A Shares held by certain of our current and former directors and employees (the “Specified Options”).
This prospectus also relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders or their permitted transferees (collectively, the “selling securityholders”) of (a) up to 210,665,118 of our Class A Shares, consisting of up to (i) 129,292,473 Class A Shares that were issued on completion of the Business Combination, (ii) 45,000,000 Class A Shares issued to certain securityholders in connection with the closing of a private placement offering concurrent with the closing of the Business Combination (the “PIPE Shares”), (iii) 24,413,065 Class A Shares issuable upon conversion of our outstanding Class B Shares, (iv) 7,060,000 Class A Shares issuable upon exercise of the Private Warrants, (v) 1,800,000 Class A Shares issuable upon exercise of the Azul Warrants, (vi) 879,691 Class A Shares issued in connection with certain equity compensation arrangements and (vii) 2,219,889 Class A Shares issuable upon the exercise of certain of the Specified Options and (b) up to 7,060,000 Private Warrants. This prospectus also covers any additional securities that may become issuable by reason of share splits, share dividends or other similar transactions.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of such securities and the general manner in which the selling securityholders may offer or sell the securities. More specific terms of any securities that the selling securityholders may offer or sell may be provided in a prospectus supplement that describes, among other things, the specific amounts and prices of the securities being offered and the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus.
All of the Class A Shares and Private Warrants offered by the selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the selling securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of Class A Shares or Private Warrants by the selling securityholders or the issuance of Class A Shares by us pursuant to this prospectus, except with respect to amounts received by us upon exercise of the Warrants or Specified Options. However, we will pay the expenses, other than any underwriting discounts and commissions, associated with the sale of securities pursuant to this prospectus.
We are registering the securities described above for resale pursuant to, among other things, the selling securityholders’ registration rights under certain agreements between us and the selling securityholders. Our registration of the securities covered by this prospectus does not mean that either we or the selling securityholders will issue, offer or sell, as applicable, any of the securities. The selling securityholders may offer and sell the securities covered by this prospectus in a number of different ways and at varying prices. We provide more information about how the selling securityholders may sell the Class A Shares or Private Warrants in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.”
We will pay certain expenses associated with the registration of the securities covered by this prospectus, as described in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.”
Our Class A Shares and Public Warrants are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbols “LILM” and “LILMW,” respectively. On October 22, 2021, the closing sale price as reported on Nasdaq of our Class A Shares was $9.00 per share and of our Public Warrants was $1.885 per warrant.
We may amend or supplement this prospectus from time to time by filing amendments or supplements as required. You should read this entire prospectus and any amendments or supplements carefully before you make your investment decision.
We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.
Our principal executive offices are located at Claude-Dornier Straße 1, Bldg. 335, 82234 Wessling, Germany.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before buying any securities, you should carefully read the discussion of material risks of investing in our securities in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 17 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed on the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Prospectus dated , 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus or any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. Neither we, nor the selling securityholders, have authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. Neither we, nor the selling securityholders, take responsibility for, nor can we provide assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may provide. The selling securityholders are not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus or such other date stated in this prospectus, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or prospects may have changed since those dates.
Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus, neither we nor the selling securityholders have taken any action to permit a public offering of these securities outside the United States or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of these securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form F-1 that we filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the selling securityholders may, from time to time, offer and sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings.
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of Class A Shares or Private Warrants to be offered by the selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus, but we will receive proceeds from Warrants or Specified Options exercised in the event that such Warrants or Specified Options are exercised for cash. We will pay the expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, if any, associated with the sale of our Class A Shares and Private Warrants pursuant to this prospectus. To the extent required, we and the selling securityholders, as applicable, will deliver a prospectus supplement with this prospectus to update the information contained in this prospectus. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information included in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, together with additional information described below under the caption “Where You Can Find More Information.” We have not, and the selling securityholders have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of the prospectus. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any other date.
No offer of these securities will be made in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted.
On September 14, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), we closed our previously announced business combination (the “Business Combination”) pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of March 30, 2021, as amended (the “Business Combination Agreement”), by and among Qell Acquisition Corp., a Cayman Islands exempted company (“Qell”), Lilium GmbH, a German limited liability company, Lilium B.V., a Dutch private liability company (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid) (which was converted into a Dutch public limited liability company (naamloze vennootschap), Lilium N.V., prior to the closing of the Business Combination), and Queen Cayman Merger LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company and wholly owned subsidiary of Lilium (“Merger Sub”).
On the Closing Date, (i) Qell converted the class A ordinary shares of Qell (the “Qell Class A Ordinary Shares”) into a claim for corresponding equity in Merger Sub, with such claim then contributed to Lilium in exchange for one Class A Share, (ii) the shareholders of Lilium GmbH exchanged their shares of Lilium GmbH for shares in the capital of Lilium, with all Lilium GmbH shareholders, but Daniel Wiegand, receiving Class A Shares in the share capital of Lilium, and Daniel Wiegand receiving Class B Shares, and (iii) each outstanding warrant to purchase a Qell Class A Ordinary Share was converted into a warrant to purchase one Class A Share.
On March 30, 2021, concurrently with the execution of the Business Combination Agreement, Qell and Lilium entered into Subscription Agreements (the “Subscription Agreements”) with certain investors (the “PIPE Investors”), pursuant to which the PIPE Investors agreed to subscribe for and purchase, and Lilium agreed to issue and sell to such PIPE Investors, an aggregate of 45,000,000 Class A Shares (the “PIPE Shares”) at a price of $10.00 per share, for gross proceeds of $450,000,000 (the “PIPE Financing”) on the Closing Date. The PIPE Financing closed concurrently with the Business Combination.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms “Lilium,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Lilium N.V. (f/k/a Lilium B.V.) after conversion into a Dutch public limited liability company and Lilium B.V. prior to the conversion into a Dutch public liability company.
IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT IFRS AND NON-IFRS FINANCIAL MEASURES
Lilium’s audited financial statements included in this prospectus are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IFRS”). This prospectus includes certain references to financial measures that were not prepared in accordance with IFRS, including Adjusted EBITDA. The presentation of this non-IFRS information is not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for Lilium’s consolidated financial results prepared in accordance with IFRS.
This prospectus also uses “contribution margin”, which is not a measurement of Lilium’s financial performance under IFRS and does not purport to be an alternative to gross profit or loss after tax derived in accordance with IFRS. Lilium’s management uses contribution margin to evaluate its future operating performance within its industry because:
|●||it permits management to evaluate and analyze its productivity, efficiency and performance while taking into account demand generation expense as a measurement of operating performance;|
|●||it assists management in comparing Lilium’s operating performance on a consistent basis, as it removes the impact of items not directly resulting from Lilium’s core operations;|
|●||for planning purposes, including the preparation of Lilium’s internal annual operating budget and financial projections;|
|●||to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of Lilium’s strategic initiatives; and|
|●||to evaluate Lilium’s capacity to fund capital expenditures necessary to grow its business.|
Lilium’s definition and calculation of “contribution margin” may not be comparable to similar measures disclosed by other companies, because not all companies and analysts calculate these measures in the same manner. Lilium presents contribution margin in this prospectus because it considers it to be an important supplemental measure of its future operating performance, and Lilium believes it is frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties in evaluating companies. Lilium’s management believes that investors’ understanding of Lilium’s performance will be enhanced by including contribution margin as a reasonable basis for comparing its proposed results of operations.
Items excluded from contribution margin are significant components in understanding and assessing financial performance. Contribution margin does not reflect Lilium’s capital expenditures, or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments, nor does it reflect changes in Lilium’s working capital needs. Lilium compensates for these limitations by relying primarily on its IFRS results and using contribution margin only as a supplemental measure. Non-IFRS measures such as contribution margin have limitations as analytical tools and should not be considered in isolation, or as an alternative to, or a substitute for loss after tax, revenue or other financial statement data presented in Lilium’s consolidated financial statements as indicators of financial performance. Other companies or analysts may calculate contribution margin differently than Lilium does, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure.
CONVENTIONS THAT APPLY TO THIS PROSPECTUS
In this prospectus, unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise requires:
|●||“$”, “USD” and “U.S. dollar” each refer to the United States dollar; and|
|●||“€”, “EUR” and “Euro” each refer to the Euro.|
The exchange rate used for conversion between U.S. dollars and Euros is based on the ECB euro reference exchange rate published by the European Central Bank.
TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES
The Lilium name, logos and other trademarks and service marks of Lilium appearing in this prospectus are the property of Lilium. Solely for convenience, some of the trademarks, service marks, logos and trade names referred to in this prospectus are presented without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks and trade names. This prospectus contains additional trademarks, service marks and trade names of others. All trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this prospectus are, to our knowledge, the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, service marks, copyrights or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
FREQUENTLY USED TERMS
Unless otherwise stated in this prospectus or the context otherwise requires references to:
“AOC” means the air operator certificate or similar aviation operating authority.
“B2B” means business-to-business.
“B2C” means business-to-consumer.
“Board” means the board of directors of Lilium.
“Business Combination” means the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement.
“Business Combination Agreement” means the Business Combination Agreement, dated March 30, 2021, as amended, by and among Lilium GmbH, Merger Sub, Qell and Lilium, as amended.
“Cayman LLC Act” means the Limited Liability Companies Act (2021 Revision) of the Cayman Islands.
“CCPA” means the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018.
“Class A Shares” means the ordinary shares A, nominal value €0.12 per share, of Lilium.
“Class B Shares” means the ordinary shares B, nominal value €0.36 per share, of Lilium.
“Class C Shares” means the ordinary shares C, nominal value €0.24 per share, of Lilium.
“Closing” means the closing of the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement.
“Code” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
“COVID-19” means the novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, and any evolutions, mutations thereof or related or associated epidemics, pandemic or disease outbreaks.
“DCGC” means the Dutch Corporate Governance Code.
“DEVT” mean ducted electric vectored thrust.
“DOA” means the Design Organization Approval.
“EASA” means the European Union Aviation Safety Agency.
“ESOP” means the Employee Stock Option Program.
“ESPP” means the Lilium 2021 Employee Share Purchase Plan.
“eVTOL” mean electric vertical take-off-and-landing.
“Exchange” means the exchange of Lilium GmbH shares for the applicable class of Lilium Shares.
“Exchange Act” means the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
“FAA” mean the Federal Aviation Administration.
“FCPA” means the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
“Final Closing Date” means the date on which the final Closing steps occur, being at least one business day after the consummation of the Liquidation Distribution and Assumption.
“General Meeting” means a general meeting of the shareholders of the Company.
“GDPR” means the General Data Protection Regulation.
“IAS” means the International Accounting Standard.
“IASB” means the International Accounting Standards Board.
“IBR” means the incremental borrowing rate.
“IFRS” means the International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the IASB.
“Incentive Plan” means the Lilium 2021 Equity Incentive Plan.
“IPO” means initial public offering.
“ISO” means incentive stock option.
“JOBS Act” means the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012.
“Lilium” means Lilium N.V.
“Lilium Jet” means the Lilium 7-Seat eVTOL aircraft.
“Lilium Shares” means the Class A Shares and the Class B Shares.
“Liquidation Distribution and Assumption” means the distribution of all of Merger Sub’s tangible and intangible assets (including all cash) and transfer of any and all of its liabilities to Lilium, in each case in connection with the commencement of winding up proceedings of Merger Sub under the Cayman LLC Act.
“Merger” means the merger of Qell with and into Merger Sub, with Merger Sub surviving such merger.
“Merger Sub” means Queen Cayman Merger LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company and wholly-owned subsidiary of Lilium.
“Nasdaq” means the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
“OEMs” means the original equipment manufacturers.
“PIPE Financing” means the subscription for and purchase by the PIPE Investors of an aggregate of 45,000,000 Class A Shares at $10.00 per share for gross proceeds of $450,000,000 pursuant to the Subscription Agreements.
“PIPE Investors” means the investors in the PIPE Financing pursuant to the Subscription Agreements.
“POA” means the production organization approval.
“Private Warrants” means the 7,060,000 warrants held by certain former Qell shareholders, purchased by such holders in the private placement that occurred concurrently with the closing of Qell’s IPO and converted into warrants to purchase one Class A Share at a price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment, at the closing of the Business Combination.
“Public Warrants” means the 12,650,000 warrants to purchase one Class A Share at a price of $11.50, subject to adjustment, held by certain former Qell shareholders.
“Qell” means Qell Acquisition Corp., a Cayman Islands exempted company.
“Qell Class A Ordinary Shares” means Qell’s Class A ordinary shares.
“Qell Class B Ordinary Shares” means Qell’s Class B ordinary shares.
“Qell IPO” means Qell’s initial public offering.
“RAM” means the Regional Air Mobility.
“Sarbanes-Oxley Act” means the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
“SC-VTOL” means Special Conditions for Small-Category VTOL Aircraft, EASA’s set of rules for the certification of small-category VTOL aircraft like the Lilium Jet.
“SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
“Sponsor” means Qell Partners LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company.
“Sponsor Letter Agreement” means the Sponsor Letter Agreement, dated March 30, 2021, by and between Sponsor, Qell, Lilium GmbH, and Lilium.
“Subscription Agreements” means the Subscription Agreements, dated March 30, 2021, between each of Lilium and Qell with the PIPE Investors.
“Tencent” means Tencent Mobility (Luxembourg) S.à r.l.
“Trust Account” means the trust account established by Qell containing the proceeds of the Qell IPO and from certain private placements occurring simultaneously with the Qell IPO for the benefit of Qell’s public shareholders.
“VTOL” means vertical take-off and landing.
Investing in our Class A Shares or Warrants involves a high degree of risk. In addition to the other information set forth in this prospectus, you should carefully consider the risk factors discussed below when considering an investment in our Class A Shares or Warrants and any risk factors that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, as well as the other information contained in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the market price of our Class A Shares and Public Warrants could decline and you could lose some or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations.
Risks Related to Our Business and Financial Position
We have incurred significant losses and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability.
We have incurred significant operating losses. Our operating losses were €58.2 million and €138.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively, and €43.5 million and €110.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2021, respectively. We expect to continue to incur substantial losses during 2021. Our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020 and for the six months ended June 30, 2021, have been prepared on a basis that assumes we will continue as a going concern, as described in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have received approximately $584 million (€493 million) in gross proceeds pursuant to the Business Combination and related PIPE Financing and expect to use these amounts to progress part of the certification, production and commercialization of the Lilium Jet. However, we have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we expect. In addition, we have not yet started commercial operations, making it difficult for us to predict our future operating results, and we believe that we will continue to incur operating losses until at least the time we begin commercial operations. As a result, our losses may be larger than anticipated, and we may not achieve profitability when expected, or at all, and even if we do, we may not be able to maintain or increase profitability.
We expect our operating expenses to increase over the next several years as we complete our aircraft design, build manufacturing sites and agree the commercial matters necessary to launch of our operations. We expect the rate at which we incur losses will be significantly higher for 2021 though at least 2025 as we engage in the following activities:
|●||continue to design, certify and produce our Lilium Jet aircraft;|
|●||engage suppliers in the development of aircraft components and commit capital to serial production of those components;|
|●||finish building our production capabilities to assemble the major components of our jets in our Munich factory: the propulsion systems, energy system assembly and aircraft integration, as well as the cost associated with outsourcing production of subsystems and commodity components;|
|●||close relationships with infrastructure providers to build and license our vertiport infrastructure;|
|●||hire additional employees across development, design, production, marketing, administration and commercialization of our business;|
|●||engage with third party providers for design, testing, certification and commercialization of our business;|
|●||build up inventories of parts and components for our jets;|
|●||further enhance our research and development capacities to continue the work on our jet’s technology, components, hardware and software performance;|
|●||test and certify the performance and operation of our jets;|
|●||work with third-party providers to train our pilots, mechanics and technicians in our proprietary jet operation and maintenance;|
|●||develop and launch our digital platform and customer user interface;|
|●||develop our sales and marketing activities and develop our vertiport infrastructure; and|
|●||increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations and our responsibilities as a public company.|
Because we will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before we receive any associated revenue, our losses in future periods will likely continue to be significant. In addition, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in the revenue we anticipate, which would further increase our losses. Furthermore, if our future growth and operating performance fail to meet investor or analyst expectations, or if we have future negative cash flow or losses resulting from our investment in acquiring customers or expanding our operations, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The eVTOL market may not continue to develop, eVTOL aircraft may not be adopted by the transportation market, eVTOL aircraft may not be certified by transportation and aviation authorities or eVTOL aircraft may not deliver the expected reduction in operating costs or time savings.
eVTOL aircraft involve a complex set of technologies and are subject to evolving regulations, many of which were originally not intended to apply to electric and/or VTOL aircraft. Before any eVTOL aircraft can fly passengers, manufacturers and operators must receive requisite regulatory approvals, including – but not limited to – aircraft type certificate and certification-related to air service operations (AOC etc.). No eVTOL aircraft have passed certification by EASA or the FAA for commercial operations in Europe or the United States, respectively, and there is no assurance that our current serial prototype for the Lilium Jet will receive government certification in a way that is market-viable or commercially successful, in a timely manner or at all. Gaining government certification requires us to prove the performance, reliability and safety of our Lilium Jet, which cannot be assured. In addition, our operations will be subject to national, federal, state and municipal licensing requirements and other regulatory measures in each jurisdiction in which we lease vertiport space, and we may require changes to our proposed vertiport infrastructure to satisfy licensing or regulatory requirements. Any of the foregoing risks and challenges could adversely affect our prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations.
The success of our business depends on the safety and positive perception of our jets, the establishment of strategic relationships, the convenience of our vertiports, and of our ability to effectively market and sell RAM services.
We have not commenced commercial operations, and we expect that our success will be highly dependent on our target customers’ embrace of RAM and eVTOL vehicles, which we believe will be influenced by the public’s perception of the safety, convenience and cost of our Lilium Jets specifically but also of the industry as a whole. As a new industry, the public has low awareness of RAM and eVTOL vehicles, which will require substantial publicity and marketing campaigns in a cost-effective manner to effectively and adequately target and engage our potential customers. If we are unable to demonstrate the safety of our jets, the convenience of our jets, the cost-effectiveness and time-savings of our RAM services as compared with other commuting, goods transportation, airport shuttle, or regional transportation options, our business may not develop as we anticipate it could, and our business, revenue and operations may be adversely affected. Further, our sales growth will depend on our ability to develop relationships with infrastructure providers, airline, other commercial entities, municipalities and regional governments and landowners, which may not be effective in generating anticipated sales, and marketing campaigns can be expensive and may not result in the acquisition of customers in a cost-effective manner, if at all. If conflicts arise with our strategic counterparties, the other party may act in a manner adverse to us and could limit our ability to implement our strategies. Our strategic counterparties may develop, either alone or with others, products or services in related fields that are competitive with our products and services.
We have a limited operating history and face significant challenges to develop, certify, manufacture and launch our services in a new industry, urban and regional air transportation services. Our Lilium eVTOL jet remains in development, and we do not expect to launch commercial services until 2024, at the earliest, if at all.
Lilium was incorporated in 2015, and we are operating in a newly emerging RAM market, which is continuously evolving. We have no experience as an organization in high volume manufacturing of our planned Lilium Jets or operation of a commercially viable RAM service. We cannot assure you that we or our suppliers and other commercial counterparties will be able to develop efficient, cost-efficient manufacturing capability and processes, and reliable sources of component supplies that will enable us to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and production standards, as well as the production volumes, required to successfully produce and maintain Lilium Jets and provide customers with a high-quality customer service across a distributed network of vertiports. Based on our current testing and projections, we believe that we can achieve our business plan and forecasted performance model targets in terms of aircraft range, speed, energy system capacity, payload and noise; however, our Lilium Jet is not yet fully operational, and we might not achieve all of our performance targets, which would materially impact our business plan and results of operations. You
should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and significant challenges we face as a new entrant into a new industry, including, among other things, with respect to our ability to:
|●||design and produce safe, reliable and high-quality Lilium Jets and scale that production in a cost-effective manner;|
|●||obtain the necessary certification and regulatory approvals in a timely manner;|
|●||build a well-recognized and respected brand;|
|●||build and maintain a convenient network of vertiports and provide high quality customer service to our customers;|
|●||establish and expand our customer base;|
|●||successfully market our intra-city RAM services and our goods transportation services to commercial customers;|
|●||properly price our services, and successfully anticipate the take-up rate and usage of such services by our target customers;|
|●||successfully maintain and service our jets and maintain a good flow of spare parts and qualified technicians;|
|●||attract, train and maintain pilots, mechanics and technicians trained in our jets and motivate other talented employees to remain with our company;|
|●||improve and maintain our operational efficiency;|
|●||maintain a reliable, secure, high-performance and scalable technology infrastructure;|
|●||predict our future revenues and appropriately budget for our expenses;|
|●||anticipate trends that may emerge and affect our business;|
|●||anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including technological developments and changes in competitive landscape;|
|●||secure, protect and defend our intellectual property; and|
|●||navigate an evolving and complex regulatory environment.|
If we fail to adequately address any or all of these risks and challenges, our business may be materially and adversely affected.
The RAM market for eVTOL passenger and goods transport services does not exist; whether and how it develops is based on assumptions, and the RAM market may not achieve the growth potential we expect or may grow more slowly than expected.
Our estimates for the total addressable market for eVTOL RAM regional passenger and goods transport services are based on a number of internal and third-party estimates, including customers who have expressed interest, assumed prices at which we can offer our services, assumed aircraft development, certification and production figures, our ability to manufacture, obtain regulatory approval and certification, and operate our jets, assumed vertiport networks available to us in our target markets, assumed safety protocols and redundancies, our internal processes and general market conditions. While we believe our assumptions and the data underlying our estimates are reasonable, these assumptions and estimates may not be correct and the conditions supporting our assumptions or estimates may change at any time, thereby reducing the predictive accuracy of these underlying factors. As a result, our estimates of the annual total addressable market for our RAM passenger transport and goods transport services, as well as the expected growth rate for the total addressable market, may prove to be incorrect, which could negatively affect our operating revenue, costs, operations and potential profitability.
We may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our pre-launch operations, and our costs will continue to be significant after we commence operations.
We will require significant capital to develop and grow our business, including designing, developing, testing, certifying and manufacturing our aircraft, building our manufacturing plant, securing leases and contractual arrangements for our vertiports and other commercial activities, educating customers of the safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of our services and building our brand. Our research and development expenses were €38.1 million and €90.3 million in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and €58.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, and we expect to continue to incur significant expenses which will impact our profitability, including continuing research and development expenses, manufacturing, maintenance and procurement costs, marketing, customer and payment system expenses, and general and administrative expenses as we scale our operations. In addition, we expect to incur significant costs in connection with operating our services, including scaling out our operations by building and operating a fleet of jets (including, but not limited to pilot salaries, landing fees, jet maintenance and energy costs), training staff on the operation and maintenance of our aircraft, expanding our vertiport network, and promoting our services. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to successfully market our services but also our ability to control our costs. If we are unable to cost efficiently design, certify, manufacture, market, operate and service our jets and operations, our margins, profitability and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.
We may experience difficulties in managing our growth and commercializing our operations.
We expect to experience significant growth in the scope and nature of our manufacturing and service operations. Our ability to manage our operations and future growth will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, compliance programs and reporting systems. We are currently in the process of strengthening our compliance programs, including our compliance programs related to internal controls, intellectual property management, privacy and cybersecurity. We may not be able to implement improvements in an efficient or timely manner and may discover deficiencies in existing controls, programs, systems and procedures, which could have an adverse effect on our business, reputation and financial results.
We may not realize the anticipated benefits of the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination.
The combination of independent businesses is complex, costly and time consuming and combining Qell and Lilium’s business and operations may divert significant management attention and resources and disrupt the combined company’s business. The failure to meet the challenges involved in integrating the businesses and to realize the anticipated benefits of the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination could cause an interruption of, or a loss of momentum in, the combined company’s business activities and could adversely affect its results of operations. The Business Combination may also result in material unanticipated problems, expenses, liabilities, and competitive responses.
Many of these factors are outside of our control, and any one of them could result in lower revenues, higher costs and diversion of management time and energy, which could materially impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If the Business Combination’s benefits do not meet the expectations of investors, shareholders or financial analysts, the market price of our securities may decline.
If the benefits of the Business Combination do not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the market price of our securities may decline. In addition, fluctuations in the price of our Class A Shares could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. If an active market for our securities develops and continues, the trading price of our Class A Shares could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our securities and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.
Factors affecting the trading price of our Class A Shares may include:
|●||actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial results or the financial results of companies perceived to be similar to Lilium;|
|●||changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;|
|●||success of competitors;|
|●||our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;|
|●||changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning Lilium or the market in general;|
|●||operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to Lilium;|
|●||our ability to market new and enhanced products and technologies on a timely basis;|
|●||changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;|
|●||our ability to meet compliance requirements;|
|●||commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;|
|●||changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;|
|●||the volume of Class A Shares available for public sale;|
|●||any major change in the Board or management;|
|●||sales of substantial amounts of Class A Shares by our directors, executive officers or significant shareholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and|
|●||general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.|
Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market has experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for retail stocks or the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to Lilium could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
We may be unable to launch our services on the timeline, or with the scope of services, that we are anticipating.
We need to resolve significant regulatory, operational, logistical, and other challenges in order to launch our Lilium Jet services. We do not currently have infrastructure in place to operate our services, and such infrastructure may not become available at all or at the times or under conditions we anticipate. Our Lilium Jets have not yet received any EASA or FAA certification/approvals, and we are working through the details of the required airspace, operational authority and other relevant and necessary multinational, federal, national and local government approvals, which are essential to the operation of our services. Any delay in the financing, design, manufacture, and launch of our Lilium Jets, any delay in the receipt of all necessary regulatory approvals and certifications, and any determination by a transportation or aviation authority that we cannot manufacture or provide or otherwise engage in the services as we contemplated could materially damage our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results, and may require us to incur additional costs and created adverse publicity for our business. If we are not able to overcome these challenges, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition will be negatively impacted and our ability to grow our business will be harmed.
Our business model has yet to be tested or regulatorily approved and any failure to commercialize our strategic plans would have an adverse effect on our operating results and business, harm our reputation and could result in substantial liabilities that exceed our resources.
Any new business will encounter challenges and difficulties, especially a business pioneer operating in a newly emerging market. Many of these challenges will be beyond our control, including substantial risks and expenses to create a new market, set up operations and educate potential customers about a new market. You should consider the likelihood of our success in light of these risks, expenses, complications, delays discussed in these Risk Factors. There is nothing at this time upon which to base an assumption that our business model will prove successful, and we may not be able to generate significant revenue, raise additional capital or operate profitably. We will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by early commercial stage companies, including scaling up our infrastructure and headcount, and may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties or delays in connection
with our growth. In addition, as a result of the capital-intensive nature of our business, we expect to continue to sustain substantial operating expenses without generating sufficient revenues to cover expenditures. Any investment in our company is therefore highly speculative and could result in the loss of your entire investment.
We anticipate commencing commercial operations with our fully developed Lilium Jet, if regulatorily approved and certified, which remains under development and has yet to complete the testing and certification process. Any delay in completing testing and certification, and any design changes that may be required to be implemented in order to receive certification, would adversely impact our business plan and our financial condition.
We expect to commence commercial operations in 2024 with a single model of eVTOL jet. We are currently engaged in a rigorous testing and design program that will be required to substantiate our certification process, and we must conduct and analyze our test flight data before we will be cleared to operate with commercial passengers using our eVTOL jet aircraft. Following each flight test, we undertake, we analyze the resulting data and determine whether additional changes to the jet design, propulsion, electronic motor, battery and software systems are required. We are engaged in a process of carefully reviewing and implementing preliminary operating data in order to identify and implementing changes to our prototype model in order to ensure optimal safety protocols, battery efficiency, sufficient redundancies, and maximum load capacities. For example, a fire occurred during post-flight maintenance after a test flight by one of our two prototypes jets in February 2020, resulting in the total loss of our first Phoenix demonstrator. Although Lilium property was damaged, no injuries or casualties resulted from the fire; however, the damage to our Phoenix demonstrator caused significant delays in the testing and analysis as we redesigned the energy system in our next generation demonstrator and addressed safety protocols, as further discussed under “Business of Lilium and Certain Information about Lilium — Safety and Performance.” The prototypes of one of our competitors, Eviation, was also destroyed in a fire in January 2020, reportedly related to a battery system. If incidents like these occur during testing, if our remediation measures and process changes are not successfully implemented or if we experience issues with manufacturing improvements or design, certification and safety, the anticipated launch of our commercial operations could be delayed.
Any delays in the development, certification, manufacture and commercialization of our Lilium Jets and related technology, such as battery technology or electric motors, may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have previously experienced, and may experience in the future, delays or other complications in the design, certification, manufacture, launch, production, and servicing ramp up of our jets and related technology. If further delays arise or recur, if our remediation measures and process changes do not continue to be successful or if we experience issues with planned manufacturing improvements or design and safety, we could experience issues in sustaining the progress towards commercialization or delays in increasing production capacity. If we encounter difficulties in scaling our production or servicing capabilities, if we fail to supply the required batteries from our suppliers which meet the required performance parameters, if our jet technologies and components do not meet our expectations or if we are unable to launch and operate our initial RAM services before our competitors, or if such technologies fail to perform as expected, are inferior to those of our competitors or are perceived as less safe than those of our competitors, we may not be able to achieve our performance targets in aircraft range, speed, payload and noise or launch products on our anticipated timelines, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely impacted.
Although we hope to be the first to bring eVTOL RAM services to market, our competitors have also displayed eVTOL prototypes and may gain certification and commercialize their vehicles to allow them to enter the market before us.
We face intense competition to be the first to bring our eVTOL RAM services to market, as further discussed under “Business of Lilium and Certain Information about Lilium — Our Competitive Strengths.” Some of our current and potential competitors may have greater financial, technical, manufacturing, regulatory, marketing and other resources than we do, which may allow them to deploy greater resources to the design, certification, development, regulation, manufacturing, promotion, sales, marketing and support of their eVTOL vehicle fleet and customer services. Additionally, some of our competitors may have greater name recognition, larger sales forces, broader customer and industry relationships and other resources than we do. These competitors may also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified research and development, sales, marketing and management personnel, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our jets and our customer services, and they may secure more convenient, exclusive leases on vertiports than we are able to secure. These competitors may also secure intellectual property related to eVTOL jets and related services. There has been some consolidation in the industry, with Joby Aviation’s acquisition of Uber Elevate and partnership with Uber in December 2020, and further consolidation may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors. We cannot provide assurances that our eVTOL services will be the first to market. Even if our eVTOL RAM services are first to market, we may not receive any competitive advantage or our potential customers may not choose our services over those of our competitors, or over other transportation options, such as helicopters, or terrestrial passenger options like cars, trains, busses or subways or other goods delivery methods such as trucking, van, car or unmanned drones. Further, our competitors may obtain larger scale capital investment than we have access to, and they may benefit from our efforts in developing consumer and community acceptance for
eVTOL aircraft, making it easier for them to obtain the permits and authorizations required to operate a service in the markets in which we intend to launch or in other markets.
Any inability to operate our RAM services after commercial launch at our anticipated flight rate, on our anticipated routes or with our anticipated vertiports could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results operations.
Even if we complete the development, certification, manufacture and commercial launch of our RAM operations, we will be dependent on one jet design system and jets that we manufacture. To be successful and satisfy the assumptions in our business plan, we will need to maintain a sufficient service operation rate consisting of a minimum number of flights per day per jet across a distributed vertiport infrastructure, which will be negatively impacted if we are not able to operate our flight services for any reason. We may be unable to operate our anticipated service operation rate for a number of reasons, such as unexpected weather patterns, maintenance issues, pilot error, design and electronic motoring flaws, airway access restrictions, natural disasters, changes in governmental regulations or in the status of our regulatory certifications and approvals or applications or other events that force us to suspend or delay services. At launch, our jets will be certified for Visual Flight Rule conditions, which means that they will have reduced operations under adverse weather conditions such as storms, fog or heavy precipitation, with enhanced certification planned soon after launch. We intend to extend our certification to all-weather capabilities, although we may be unable to do so, and to receive certification, we may incur significant costs to improve the climate resiliency of our jets and our vertiports. Our vertiports in Florida may be located in areas susceptible to hurricanes and sudden storms, as well as related flooding, and our vertiports in Germany may be located in areas prone to freezing and snow storms, the occurrence of any of which could result in costs and loss of revenue. The potential physical effects of climate change, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, fog, mist, freezing conditions and other climate-related events, could affect the frequency of our operations and cause delays and cancellations to our services, which would materially impact our operations, public perception and market image and financial results. If we need to replace any components or hardware in our jets, many of which will be bespoke or custom-produced by or for us, there are limited numbers of replacement parts available, some of which have significant lead time associated with procurement or manufacture, so any unplanned failures could result in reduced jet service and significant delays to our planned growth.
Our potential customers may not generally accept the RAM industry or our passenger or goods transport services. If we are unable to convince customers of the convenience of our services and generally provide high quality customer service that will be expected of a premium service, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.
As a vertically-integrated business, we intend to provide our customers with direct customer service at branded and third party-operated vertiports in our passenger Lilium network, including sales, payment, scheduling, on-site service, pre-boarding lounges and post-boarding customer support, as well as first-mile and last-mile integration with airports, train stations, bus terminals and urban transport systems. Some of these systems we intend to operate directly, such as our customer-facing digital platform and user interface, which remains under development and may be difficult to complete with the functionality and usability that we currently intend to provide. We anticipate that other on-site customer services at our vertiports, like security, refreshments and baggage handling, will be carried out through third parties certified by us. We may be unable to integrate these third-party services in our service offering at launch, or at all, at favorable prices, which could reduce the customer appeal of our services. Further, although such third parties may have experience in servicing other transportation services, they will initially have limited experience in servicing our jets and interfacing with our customer portal. Our service arrangements may not adequately address the service requirements of our customers to their satisfaction, or we and our third-party service operators will have sufficient resources to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the number of vertiports and vertihubs in our network increases. Our business and our brand will be affiliated with these third-party service operators, and we may experience harm to our reputation if these operators provide our customers with poor service, negative publicity, accidents, or safety incidents. Further, if we are unable to establish a widespread vertiport network that complies with applicable laws, our customers’ receptivity to our service, ease of use, and general satisfaction levels could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our reputation and thus our sales, results of operations, and prospects.
Adverse publicity stemming from any incident involving us or our competitors, or an incident involving any air travel service or unmanned flight based on autonomous technology, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Electric aircraft are based on complex technology that requires skilled pilot operation and maintenance. Like any aircraft, they may experience operational or process failures and other problems, including through adverse weather conditions, unanticipated collisions with foreign objects, manufacturing or design defects, pilot error, software malfunctions, cyber-attacks or other intentional acts that could result in potential safety risks. Any actual or perceived safety issues with our jets, other electric aircraft or eVTOL aircraft, unmanned flight based on autonomous technology or the RAM industry generally may result in significant reputational harm to our business, in addition to tort liability, increased safety infrastructure and other costs that may arise. The electric aircraft industry has had several accidents involving prototypes. Our first Phoenix demonstrator was destroyed by a ground-maintenance fire in
February 2020; Eviation’s prototype eVTOL vehicle caught fire during testing in January 2020; a small battery-operated plane operated by Avinor and built by Slovenia’s Pipistrel crashed in Norway in August 2019; and an electric-motor experimental aircraft built by Siemens and Hungarian company Magnus crashed in Hungary in May 2018, killing both occupants. We are at risk of adverse publicity stemming from any public incident involving our company, our employees or our brand. If our personnel or one of jets, or the personnel or vehicles of one of our competitors, were to be involved in a public incident, accident or catastrophe, the public perception of the RAM industry or eVTOL vehicles specifically could be adversely affected, resulting in decreased customer demand for services, significant reputational harm or potential legal liability, which could cause a material adverse effect on our sales and service volumes, business and financial condition. Although our insurance partially covered the damage caused by the February 2020 ground-maintenance fire, the insurance we carry may be inapplicable or inadequate to cover any such incident, accident or catastrophe in the future. If our insurance is inapplicable or insufficient to cover any future incidents, we may be forced to bear substantial losses from an incident or accident.
Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. In addition, our future capital needs may require us to sell additional equity or debt securities that may adversely affect the market price of our shares and dilute our shareholders or introduce covenants that may restrict our operations.
We expect our capital expenditures to continue to be significant in the foreseeable future as we expand our development, certification, production and commercial launch, and that our level of capital expenditures will be significantly affected by customer demand for our services. The fact that we have a limited operating history and are entering a new industry means we have no historical data on the demand for our services. As a result, our future capital requirements may be uncertain and actual capital requirements may be different from those we currently anticipate. We may seek equity or debt financing to finance a portion of our capital expenditures. Such financing might not be available to us in a timely manner or on terms that are acceptable, or at all.
Our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our industry and business model. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient funds, we will have to significantly reduce our spending, delay or cancel our planned activities or substantially change our corporate structure. We might not be able to obtain any funding, and we might not have sufficient resources to conduct our business, both of which could mean that we would be forced to curtail or discontinue our operations.
We may seek to raise such capital through the issuance of additional shares or debt securities with conversion rights (such as convertible bonds and option rights). An issuance of additional shares or debt securities with conversion rights could potentially reduce the market price of our shares, and we currently cannot predict the amounts and terms of such future offerings.
In addition, our future capital needs and other business reasons could require us to sell additional equity or debt securities or obtain a credit facility. The sale of additional equity or equity-linked securities could dilute our shareholders. In addition, such dilution may arise from the acquisition or investments in companies in exchange, fully or in part, for newly issued shares, options granted to our business partners or from the exercise of stock options by our employees in the context of existing or future share option programs or the issuance of shares to employees in the context of existing or future employee participation programs. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations.
If we cannot raise additional funds when we need or want them, our operations and prospects could be negatively affected.
If we are unable to successfully design and manufacture our jets, our business will be harmed.
We are expanding our prototype manufacturing facility near Munich to full scale manufacturing and production, and we expect to begin low volume production of our Lilium Jet for testing and certification in 2022. We have signed three supply agreements with Toray Industries, Aciturri Aerostructures and Honeywell and term sheets for manufacturing and outsourcing production agreements with dozens of Tier 1 aerospace companies to produce our jet parts and components, and we are in discussions with further 60-70 manufacturing and outsourcing parties, as discussed under “Business of Lilium and Certain Information About Lilium — Production Facilities and Manufacturing Strategy.” Many of the parts and components we require will be custom-made for our jets at our production facilities or the production facilities of our outsourcing parties and suppliers; the equipment used to produce these parts and components would be costly to replace and could require substantial lead time to replace and qualify for use. We may not be able to successfully develop commercial-scale manufacturing capabilities internally or supply chain relationships with our intended Tier 1 suppliers. Other parts and components will be off-the-shelf products manufactured for the airline industry and are readily substituted. Our production facilities and the production facilities of our outsourcing parties and suppliers may be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including earthquakes, flooding, fire and power outages, or by health epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which may render it difficult or impossible for us to manufacture our jets for some period of time. The inability
to manufacture our jets or the backlog that could develop if our production facilities and the production facilities of our outsourcing parties and suppliers are inoperable for even a short period of time may result in delays in our intended launch or scale-out plans or harm our reputation. Although we maintain insurance for damage to our property and the disruption of our business, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, if at all.
If the Lilium Jets we build fail to perform as expected, our ability to develop, market, and sell our services could be harmed.
Once we commence serial production, our jets may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repairs, service outages and design changes. Further, our Lilium Jets may be impacted by various performance factors that could impair customer satisfaction or cause delays or disruptions to our services, such as wind gusts during take-off and landing, turbulent air during flight, foreign object damage, fan stall or wing flutter, overloading, hail and bird strike, sub-optimal battery performance or excessive noise. If our Lilium Jets fail to perform as expected, we may need to delay launch of commercial operations, reduce our roll out plans and commercial expansions or limit the number of flights or geographic scope of our services, which could adversely affect our brand in our target markets and could adversely affect our business, prospects, and results of operations.
We may not succeed in establishing, maintaining and strengthening our brand, which would materially and adversely affect customer acceptance of our services, reducing our anticipated sales and revenue.
Our business and prospects heavily depend on our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the Lilium brand and sell consumers on the safety, convenience and cost-effectiveness of our RAM services. If we are not able to establish, maintain and strengthen our brand, we may lose the opportunity to build a critical mass of customers. Our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the Lilium brand will depend heavily on the success of our marketing efforts. When it launches, we expect the RAM industry to be intensely competitive, with a strong first-mover advantage, and we may not be the first to launch our services or we may be unsuccessful in building, maintaining and strengthening our brand. If we do not develop and maintain a strong brand, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be materially and adversely impacted.
We are highly dependent on the services of our four founders.
We are highly dependent on the services of our four founders, as described in “Business of Lilium and Certain Information About Lilium — Our History”, who are significant shareholders in Lilium. Our founders are the source of many, if not most, of the ideas and execution driving Lilium. If any of our founders were to discontinue their service to us due to death, disability or any other reason, we would be significantly disadvantaged.
Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our key employees and qualified personnel, and we will require experienced pilots and qualified mechanics to operate and service our Lilium Jets; our operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.
Our success depends substantially on the continued efforts of our key employees and qualified personnel, and our operations may be severely disrupted if we lost their services. As we build our brand and become more well known, the risk that competitors or other companies may poach our talent increases. The failure to attract, integrate, train, motivate and retain these personnel could seriously harm our business and prospects.
Throughout the aviation industry, there is a shortage of trained pilots and qualified aircraft mechanics. Our services will depend on finding third parties to recruit and train pilots qualified to operate our Lilium Jets and mechanics qualified to perform the requisite maintenance activities, for which we will compete with airlines and other air mobility and transportation services, some of which will offer wages or benefit packages exceeding ours. We intend to work with third parties to train our pilots, mechanics and technicians in our proprietary jet operation and maintenance; however, if we are unable to hire, train, and retain qualified pilots and qualified mechanics, our business could be harmed, and we may be unable to implement our growth plans.
Our business may be adversely affected by labor and union activities.
Although none of our employees are currently represented by a labor union, it is common throughout the aircraft industry generally for many employees at aircraft companies to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs and increased risk of work stoppages. We may also directly and indirectly depend upon other companies with unionized work forces, such as parts suppliers and trucking and freight companies, and work stoppages or strikes organized by such unions could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or operating results.
We face risks related to health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic.
We face various risks related to public health issues, including epidemics, pandemics, and other outbreaks, including the recent pandemic of respiratory illness caused by COVID-19. The impact of COVID-19, including changes in consumer and business behavior, unease with shared transport, pandemic fears and market downturns, and restrictions on business and individual activities, has created significant volatility in the global economy and led to reduced economic activity. The spread of COVID-19 has also created a disruption in the manufacturing, delivery and overall supply chain of all manufacturers and suppliers and has led to a global decrease in personal and business travel around the world.
The pandemic has resulted in government authorities implementing numerous measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, stay-at-home or shelter-in-place orders, and business shutdowns. These measures have and may continue to adversely impact our employees, our ability to provide our services, and the operations of our customers, suppliers, and business partners, and may negatively impact our sales and marketing activities. In addition, many aspects of our research and development activities cannot be conducted remotely. These measures by government authorities may remain in place for a significant period of time (or may be reinstated from time to time if rescinded) and they are likely to continue to adversely affect our manufacturing plans, sales and marketing activities, business and results of operations.
The spread of COVID-19 initially caused us to modify our business practices including implementing work from home arrangements for employees able to perform their duties remotely, restricting nonessential employee travel, and practicing social distancing in our research development, certification and production operations. However, with COVID-19 vaccines becoming more broadly available, certain of our employees have begun returning to onsite work. There can be no assurance that future developments regarding the ongoing spread of COVID-19 will not result in a return to working from home for large portions of our workforce and the reinstatement of additional COVID-19 mitigation measures. We may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine is in the best interests of our employees, customers, suppliers, vendors and business partners. There is no certainty that such actions will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the virus or otherwise be satisfactory to government authorities. If significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, including due to illness, quarantines, social distancing, government actions or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, our operations will be impacted. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, prospects and results of operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the duration and spread of the pandemic, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, restrictions on shared or air transport, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating activities can resume. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience an adverse impact to our business as a result of its global economic impact, including any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future. For example, we continue to experience delays in our supply chain, including delays in delivery of parts and materials, as well as the impact of higher inflation rates, and there can be no assurance that the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our supply chain will normalize.
In addition, difficult macroeconomic conditions, such as decreases in discretionary travel, per capita income and level of disposable income, increased and prolonged unemployment, or a decline in consumer confidence as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic could have a material adverse effect on the demand for our services. Under difficult economic conditions, potential customers may seek to reduce spending by forgoing our RAM services.
There are no comparable recent events that may provide guidance as to the effect of the spread of COVID-19 and a pandemic, and, as a result, the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar health epidemic is highly uncertain.
Failure of information security and privacy concerns could subject us to penalties, damage our reputation and brand, and harm our business and results of operations.
We expect to face significant challenges with respect to information security and privacy, including the storage, transmission and sharing of confidential information. We will transmit and store confidential and private information of our customers, such as personal information, including names, accounts, user IDs and passwords, and payment or transaction related information.
We intend to adopt strict information security policies and deploy advanced measures to implement the policies, including, among others, advanced encryption technologies. However, advances in technology, an increased level of sophistication of our services, an increased level of expertise of hackers, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or others can still result in a compromise or breach of the measures that we use. If we are unable to protect our systems, and hence the information stored in our systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction, such problems or security breaches could cause a loss, give rise to our liabilities to the owners of confidential information or even subject us to fines and penalties. In addition, complying with various laws and regulations could cause us to incur substantial costs or require that we change our business practices, including our data practices, in a manner adverse to our business.
In addition, we will need to comply with increasingly complex and rigorous regulatory standards enacted to protect business and personal data in the United States, Europe and elsewhere. For example, the European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective on May 25, 2018 and the State of California adopted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”); additional U.S. states are likely to adopt measures similar to the CCPA in the near term. Both the GDPR and the CCPA impose additional obligations on companies regarding the handling of personal data and provides certain individual privacy rights to persons whose data is stored. Compliance with existing, proposed and recently enacted laws (including implementation of the privacy and process enhancements called for under the GDPR) and regulations can be costly; any failure to comply with these regulatory standards could subject us to legal and reputational risks.
Compliance with any additional laws and regulations could be expensive and may place restrictions on the conduct of our business and the manner in which we interact with our customers. Any failure to comply with applicable regulations could also result in regulatory enforcement actions against us, and misuse of or failure to secure personal information could also result in violation of data privacy laws and regulations, proceedings against us by governmental entities or others, and damage to our reputation and credibility, and could have a negative impact on revenues and profits.
Significant capital and other resources may be required to protect against information security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by such breaches or to comply with our privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations. The resources required may increase over time as the methods used by hackers and others engaged in online criminal activities are increasingly sophisticated and constantly evolving. Any failure or perceived failure by us to prevent information security breaches or to comply with privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personally identifiable information or other customer data, could cause our customers to lose trust in us and could expose us to legal claims. Any perception by the public that online transactions or the privacy of user information are becoming increasingly unsafe or vulnerable to attacks could inhibit the growth of online retail and other online services generally, which may reduce the number of orders we receive.
We are subject to cybersecurity risks to our operational systems, security systems, infrastructure, integrated software in our aircraft and customer data processed by us or third-party vendors.
We are at risk for interruptions, outages and breaches of the following systems, which are either owned by us or operated by our third-party vendors or suppliers:
|●||operational systems, including business, financial, accounting, product development, data processing or production processes;|
|●||facility security systems;|
|●||aircraft technology including powertrain and avionics and flight control software;|
|●||the integrated software in our aircraft;|
|●||customer data; or|
The occurrence of any such incident could disrupt our operational systems, result in loss of intellectual property, trade secrets or other proprietary or competitively sensitive information, compromise personal information of customers, employees, suppliers, or others, jeopardize the security of our facilities or affect the performance of in-product technology and the integrated software in our jets.
Moreover, there are inherent risks associated with developing, improving, expanding and updating our current systems, such as the disruption of our data management, procurement, production execution, finance, supply chain and sales and service processes. These risks may affect our ability to manage our data and inventory, procure parts or supplies or manufacture, deploy, deliver and service our aircraft, adequately protect our intellectual property or achieve and maintain compliance with, or realize available benefits under, applicable laws, regulations and contracts. We cannot be sure that these systems upon which we rely, including those of our third-party vendors or suppliers, will be effectively implemented, maintained or expanded as planned. If these systems do not operate as we expect them to, we may be required to expend significant resources to make corrections or find alternative sources for performing these functions.
Any unauthorized access to or control of our jets or their systems or any loss of data could result in legal claims or proceedings. In addition, regardless of their veracity, reports of unauthorized access to our jets, their systems or data, as well as other factors that may result in the perception that our jets, their systems or data are capable of being “hacked,” could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations.
Our manufacturing or customer service facilities or operations could be adversely affected by events outside of our control, such as natural disasters, wars, health epidemics like COVID-19, and other calamities. Although we have servers that are hosted in an offsite location, our backup system does not capture data on a real-time basis, and we may be unable to recover certain data in the event of a server failure. We cannot assure you that any backup systems will be adequate to protect us from the effects of fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events. Any of the foregoing events may give rise to interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide services.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information included in this prospectus is preliminary and our actual financial condition and results of operations may differ materially.
The unaudited pro forma financial information included in this prospectus is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of what our actual financial position or results of operations would have been had the Business Combination been completed on the date(s) indicated. The preparation of the pro forma financial information is based upon available information and certain assumptions and estimates that we currently believe are reasonable. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined information does not purport to indicate the results that would have been obtained had the Business Combination and related transactions actually been completed on the assumed date or for the periods presented, or which may be realized in the future. The pro forma adjustments are based on the information currently available and the assumptions and estimates underlying the pro forma adjustments are described in the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ materially from the assumptions within the accompanying unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information.
Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties
Our Lilium Jets require complex software, battery technology and other technology systems that remain in development and need to be commercialized in coordination with our vendors and suppliers to complete serial production. The failure of advances in technology and of manufacturing at the rates and volumes we project may impact our ability to increase the volume of our production or drive down end user pricing.
Our Lilium Jets will use a substantial amount of third-party and in-house software codes and complex hardware to operate. Our software and hardware may contain, errors, bugs or vulnerabilities, and our systems are subject to certain technical limitations that may compromise our ability to meet our objectives. Some errors, bugs or vulnerabilities inherently may be difficult to detect and may only be discovered after the code has been implemented. We have a limited frame of reference by which to evaluate the long-term performance of our software and hardware systems and our jets, and we may be unable to detect and fix any defects in the jets prior to commencing commercial operations. The development and on-going monitoring of such advanced technologies is inherently complex, and we will need to coordinate with our vendors and suppliers in order to complete full-scale production. Our potential inability to develop the necessary software and technology systems may harm our competitive position or delay the certification or manufacture of our jets.
We are relying on third-party suppliers to develop a number of emerging technologies for use in our products, including lithium-ion battery technology. Many of these technologies are already commercially viable, and measurements of our battery supplier have already yielded promising results. However, the final technology of our batteries and other sub-systems is still under development and
the design is not yet finalized. The final cell design of our suppliers may not be able to meet the safety, technological, economical or operational requirements to support the regulatory requirements and performance assumed in our business plan.
We are also relying on third-party suppliers to commercialized these technologies (such as battery cell technology) at the volume and costs we require to launch and ramp-up our production. Our suppliers may not be able to meet the production timing, volume requirements or cost requirements we have assumed in our business plan. Our third party suppliers could face other challenges, such as the lack of raw materials or machinery, the breakdown of tools in production or the malfunctioning of technology as they ramp up production. As a result, our business plan could be significantly impacted, and we may incur significant delays in production and full commercialization, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, and results of operations.
Our Lilium Jets will make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.
The battery packs within our Lilium Jets will use lithium-ion cells. On rare occasions, lithium-ion cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion cells. While the battery pack is designed to contain any single cell’s release of energy without spreading to neighboring cells, a failure of battery packs in our jets could occur or batteries could catch fire during production or testing, which could result in bodily injury or death and could subject us to lawsuits, regulatory challenges or redesign efforts, all of which would be time consuming and expensive and could harm our brand image. Also, negative public perceptions regarding the suitability of lithium-ion cells for automotive applications, the social and environmental impacts of cobalt mining, or any future incident involving lithium-ion cells, such as a vehicle or other fire, could seriously harm our business and reputation.
We will rely on third-party suppliers and strategic parties for the provision and development of key emerging technologies, components and materials used in our Lilium Jet, such as the lithium-ion batteries that will power the jets, a significant number of which may be single or limited source suppliers. If any of these prospective suppliers or strategic parties choose to not do business with us at all, or insist on terms that are commercially disadvantageous, we may have significant difficulty in procuring and producing our jets, and our business prospects would be harmed.
Third-party suppliers and strategic parties will provide key components and technology to the Lilium Jets. Collaborations with strategic parties are necessary to successfully commercialize our existing and future products. If we are unable to identify or enter into agreements with strategic parties for the development of key technology or if such strategic parties insist on terms that are commercially disadvantageous, including for example the ability to freely commercialize jointly owned intellectual property, we may have significant difficulty in procuring and producing our jets or technologies, components or materials used in our jets. The terms of our existing collaboration agreements typically include one or more of the following: joint ownership of the new intellectual property, assignment of the new intellectual property to either us or the collaborator, either exclusive or non-exclusive licenses to the new intellectual property to us or the collaborator and other restrictions on our or our collaborator’s use of developments, such as non-competes and time or milestone limited exclusivity provisions. If we are unable to negotiate exclusivity regarding the technology developed under these collaborations, our competitors may be able to access the technology that is owned, solely or jointly, by our collaborator.
In addition to our collaborations, we will be substantially reliant on our relationships with our suppliers for the parts and components in our jets. If any of these prospective suppliers choose to not do business with us at all, or insist on terms that are commercially disadvantageous, we may have significant difficulty in procuring and producing our jets, and our business prospects would be harmed. If our suppliers experience any delays in providing us with or developing necessary components, or if our suppliers are unable to deliver necessary components in a timely manner and at prices and volumes acceptable to us, we could experience delays in manufacturing or servicing our jets, delivering on our timelines, and launching and scaling up as anticipated, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects and operating results.
While we plan to obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, we may purchase many of the components used in our Lilium Jets from a single source. While we believe that we may be able to establish alternate supply relationships and can obtain replacement components for our single source components, we may be unable to do so in the short term (or at all) at prices or quality levels that are acceptable to us. In addition, we could experience delays if our suppliers do not meet agreed upon timelines or experience capacity constraints. Any disruption in the supply of components, whether or not from a single source supplier, could temporarily disrupt production or servicing of our jets until an alternative supplier is able to supply the required material. Changes in business conditions, unforeseen circumstances, governmental changes, and other factors beyond our control or which we do not presently anticipate, could also affect our suppliers’ ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Any disruptions to our supply chain, significant increase in component costs, or shortages of critical components, could adversely affect our business and result in increased costs.
Any disruptions to our supply chain, significant increase in component costs, or shortages of critical components, could adversely affect our business and result in increased costs. Such a disruption could occur as a result of any number of events, including, but not limited to, an extended closure of or any slowdown at our supplier’s plants or shipping delays due to efforts to limit the spread of COVID-19 or implementation of post-COVID-19 policies or practices, market shortages due to surge in demand for any particular part or component, increases in prices or impact of inflation, the imposition of regulations, quotas or embargoes on components, labor stoppages, transportation delays or failures affecting the supply chain and shipment of materials and finished goods, third-party interference in the integrity of the parts and components sourced through the supply chain, the unavailability of raw materials, severe weather conditions, adverse effects of climate change, natural disasters, geopolitical developments, war or terrorism and disruptions in utilities and other services. Further, the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 situation and broader inflationary environment has had, and may continue to have, adverse impacts on our supply chain, which could put pressure on our unit costs in the future, and increased upfront payments to our suppliers and earlier phasing of those payments may put pressure on our non-recurring costs in future periods. In addition, any future updates or modifications to the anticipated design of the Lilium Jet may increase the number of parts and components we would be required to source and increase the complexity of our supply chain management. Failure to effectively manage the supply of parts and components could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
If any of our suppliers become economically distressed or go bankrupt, we may be required to provide substantial financial support or take other measures to ensure supplies of components or materials, which could increase our costs, affect our liquidity or cause production disruptions.
We expect to purchase various types of equipment, raw materials and manufactured component parts from our suppliers. If these suppliers experience substantial financial difficulties, cease operations, or otherwise face business disruptions, we may be required to provide substantial financial support to ensure supply continuity or would have to take other measures to ensure components and materials remain available. Any disruption could affect our ability to deliver vehicles and could increase our costs and negatively affect our liquidity and financial performance.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.
We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position. We rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets (including know-how), employee and third-party nondisclosure agreements, copyrights, trademarks, intellectual property licenses, and other contractual rights to establish and protect our rights in our technology. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, third parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property or seek court declarations that they do not infringe upon our intellectual property rights or those rights are not enforceable. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and the steps we have taken or will take are aimed to prevent misappropriation. From time to time, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources, including significant amounts of time from our key executives and management, and may not have the desired outcome.
Patent, trademark, and trade secret laws vary significantly throughout the world. Some countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States and European Union. Therefore, we may not be able to secure certain intellectual property rights in some jurisdictions, and our intellectual property rights may not be as strong or as easily enforced outside of the United States and the European Union. Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property rights could result in our competitors offering similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of some of our competitive advantage and a decrease in our revenue which, would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Our patent applications may not issue as patents, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from commercially exploiting products similar to ours.
We cannot be certain that we are the first inventor of the subject matter to which we have filed or plan to file a particular patent application, or if we are the first party to file such a patent application. If another party has filed a patent application for the same subject matter as we have, or similar subject matter is otherwise publicly disclosed, we may not be entitled to the protection sought by the patent application. Further, the scope of protection of issued patent claims is often difficult to determine. As a result, we cannot be certain that the patent applications that we file will issue, or that our issued patents will afford protection against competitors with
similar technology or will cover certain aspects of our products. In addition, our competitors may design around our issued patents, which may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition or operating results.
As our patents may expire and may not be extended, our patent applications may not be granted and our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope, our patent rights may not protect us effectively. In particular, we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies.
We cannot assure you that we will be granted patents pursuant to our pending applications or those we plan to file in the future. Even if our patent applications succeed and we are issued patents in accordance with them, these patents could be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. In addition, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with meaningful protection or competitive advantages. The claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. The intellectual property rights of others could also bar us from licensing and exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could result in refusal of or invalidation our patent applications. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.
We may need to defend ourselves against patent or trademark infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and would cause us to incur substantial costs.
Companies, organizations, or individuals, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell, leasing or market our vehicles or components, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, we may receive communications from holders of patents (including non-practicing entities or other patent licensing organizations), trademarks or other intellectual property regarding their proprietary rights. Companies holding patents or other intellectual property rights may bring suits alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise assert their rights and urge us to take licenses. Our applications and uses of trademarks relating to our design, software or artificial intelligence technologies could be found to infringe upon existing trademark ownership and rights. In addition, if we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do one or more of the following:
|●||cease manufacturing our jets, or discontinue use of certain components in our jets, or offering services that incorporate or use the challenged intellectual property;|
|●||pay substantial damages;|
|●||seek a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms, or at all;|
|●||redesign our jets or other customer service offerings; or|
|●||establish and maintain alternative branding for our jets or services.|
In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us and our failure or inability to obtain a license to the infringed technology or other intellectual property right, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention.
We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our employees’ former employers.
Many of our employees were previously employed by other aeronautics, aircraft or transportation companies or by suppliers to these companies. We may be subject to claims that we or these employees have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of our former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. A loss of key personnel or our work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize our products, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and demand on management resources.
Risks Related to the Regulatory Environment in which Lilium Operates
We are subject to substantial regulation and unfavorable changes to, or our failure to comply with, these regulations could substantially harm our business and operating results.
Our eVTOL jets and the operation of our RAM services by us or in certain jurisdictions by our local AOCs will be subject to substantial regulation in the jurisdictions in which we intend our eVTOL jets to operate. We expect to incur significant costs in complying with these regulations. Regulations related to the eVTOL industry, including aircraft certification, production certification, passenger operation, flight operation, airspace operation, security regulation and vertiport regulation are currently evolving, and we face risks associated with the development and evolution of these regulations.
Our jets must be certified with the FAA and EASA as a light aircraft, as further discussed under “Business of Lilium and Certain Information About Lilium — Aircraft Certification.” Operating our jets in the U.S. and Europe and providing our passenger and goods transportation services must comply with U.S. and European laws, regulations, safety standards, and customer service regulations. Rigorous testing and the use of approved materials and equipment are among the requirements for achieving certification. Our failure to obtain or maintain certification for our jets or infrastructure would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results. In addition to obtaining and maintaining certification of our jets, we and our third party air carriers will need to obtain and maintain operational authority necessary to provide our envisioned RAM services. A transportation or aviation authority may determine that we and/or our third party air carriers cannot manufacture, provide, or otherwise engage in the services as we contemplated and upon which we based our projections. The inability to implement our envisioned RAM services could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and prospects.
To the extent the laws change, our jets and our RAM services may not comply with applicable American, European, international, federal, state or local laws, which would have an adverse effect on our business. Compliance with changing regulations could be burdensome, time consuming, and expensive. To the extent compliance with new regulations is cost prohibitive, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results would be adversely affected.
When we expand beyond the United States and the European Union, such as into China, there will be Chinese laws and regulations we must comply with, and there may be laws and regulations in other jurisdictions we have not yet entered or laws we are unaware of in jurisdictions we have entered that may restrict our operations or business practices or that are difficult to interpret and change rapidly. Continued regulatory limitations and other obstacles interfering our business operations could have a negative and material impact on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Third-party air carriers will operate our RAM services in the U.S. and Europe using the Lilium Jets. These third-party air carriers are subject to substantial regulation and laws, and unfavorable changes to, or the third-party air carriers’ failure to comply with, these regulations and/or laws could substantially harm our business and operating results.
Non-U.S. citizen air carriers cannot engage in air transportation services within the U.S. Accordingly, our strategy for service offerings in the U.S. and the European markets involves strategic relationships with third-party U.S. citizen (as “citizen of the United States” is defined in 49 U.S.C. § 40102(a)(15)) or EU air carriers, respectively, which will be responsible for providing the aircraft services using the Lilium Jets. These third-party air carriers are subject to substantial regulation and laws, and unfavorable changes to, or the third-party air carriers’ failure to comply with, these regulations or laws could substantially harm our business and operating results. Further, although third-party air carriers may have experience in providing air transportation services, they will initially have limited experience in operating our Lilium Jets. Our arrangements with third-party air carriers may not adequately address the operating requirements of our customers to their satisfaction. Given that our business and our brand will be affiliated with these third-party air carriers, we may experience harm to our reputation if these third-party air carriers provide customers with poor service, receive negative publicity, or experience accidents or safety incidents. Further, under U.S. law and the policy of the U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. citizens must have actual control of U.S. air carriers, and thus there are limits on our ability to exercise control over such U.S. air carriers. Any determination by a transportation or aviation authority that we cannot provide or otherwise engage in the services as we contemplated and upon which we based our projections could materially affect the services we intend to offer and could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
We are or will be subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to administrative, civil and criminal fines and penalties, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.
We are or will be subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we conduct or in the future may conduct activities, including the U.S. Foreign
Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), European anti-bribery and corruption laws, and other anti-corruption laws and regulations. The FCPA and European anti-bribery and corruption laws prohibit us and our officers, directors, employees and business partners acting on our behalf, including agents, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA also requires companies to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of adequate internal accounting controls. A violation of these laws or regulations could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation. Our policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these regulations may not be sufficient and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents, and business partners could engage in improper conduct for which we may be held responsible.
Non-compliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering or financial and economic sanctions laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, and severe administrative, civil and criminal sanctions, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation. In addition, changes in economic sanctions laws in the future could adversely impact our business and investments in our shares.
We will be subject to governmental export and import control laws and regulations as we expand our suppliers and commercial operations outside the U.S. and Europe.
Our Lilium Jets will be subject to export control and import laws and regulations, which must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. For example, we may require licenses to import or export our jets, components or technologies to our production facilities and may experience delays in obtaining the requisite licenses to do so. Audits in connection with the application for licenses may increase areas of noncompliance that could result in delays or additional costs. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to additional audits, substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges, fines, which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers.
Risks Associated with Lilium Being a U.S. Public Company
We will need to improve our operational and financial systems to support our expected growth, increasingly complex business arrangements, and rules governing revenue and expense recognition and any inability to do so will adversely affect our billing and reporting.
To manage the expected growth of our operations and increasing complexity, we will need to improve our operational and financial systems, procedures, and controls and continue to increase systems automation to reduce reliance on manual operations. Any inability to do so will affect our manufacturing operations, customer billing and reporting. Our current and planned systems, procedures and controls may not be adequate to support our complex arrangements and the rules governing revenue and expense recognition for our future operations and expected growth. Delays or problems associated with any improvement or expansion of our operational and financial systems and controls could adversely affect our relationships with our customers, cause harm to our reputation and brand and could also result in errors in our financial and other reporting. We expect that complying with these rules and regulations will substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. The increased costs will increase our net loss. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and may identify additional material weaknesses in the future. Failure to remediate such material weaknesses in the future or to maintain an effective system of internal control could impair our ability to comply with the financial reporting and internal controls requirements for publicly traded companies.
As a U.S. public company, we operate in an increasingly demanding regulatory environment, which requires us to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), Nasdaq regulations, SEC rules and regulations, expanded disclosure requirements, accelerated reporting requirements and more complex accounting rules. Company responsibilities required by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act include establishing corporate oversight and adequate internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. Effective internal controls are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to help prevent financial fraud.
In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements, we identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not
be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weaknesses relate to (i) lack of consistent and proper application of accounting processes and procedures, defined control processes and segregation of duties, (ii) insufficient design, implementation and operating effectiveness of information technology general controls for information systems that are significant to the preparation of our financial statements, (iii) lack of review and supervision and (iv) insufficient resources with an appropriate level of technical accounting and SEC reporting expertise.
We are in the process of designing and implementing measures to improve our internal control over financial reporting to remediate the material weaknesses, including by implementing new information technology and systems for the preparation of the financial statements, implementing additional review procedures within our accounting and finance department, hiring additional staff and engaging external accounting experts to support improving our accounting processes and procedures and supplement our internal resources in our computation processes. While we are designing and implementing measures to remediate the material weaknesses, we cannot predict the success of such measures or the outcome of our assessment of these measures at this time. These measures may not remediate the deficiencies in internal control or prevent additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Our failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements that may lead to a restatement of our financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations.
We anticipate that the process of building our accounting and financial functions and infrastructure will result in substantial costs, including significant additional professional fees and internal costs. Any disruptions or difficulties in implementing or using such a system could adversely affect our controls and harm our business. Moreover, such disruption or difficulties could result in unanticipated costs and diversion of management’s attention.
In addition, as a public company, we will be required to provide management’s attestation on internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in our next Annual Report on Form 20-F. Our management may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements that are applicable to us after the Business Combination. If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, including Section 404(a) requiring management’s attestation on internal control over financial reporting, in a timely manner, or if we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our business and results of operations could be harmed, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.
Our management has limited experience in operating a U.S. public company.
Our management have limited experience in the management of a U.S. public or European listed company. Our management team may not successfully or effectively manage our transition to a U.S. public company that is subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of the combined company. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience, and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of U.S. public companies. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for us to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the United States may require costs greater than expected. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company, which will increase our operating costs in future periods.
Our failure to meet Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements could result in a delisting of our shares.
If we fail to satisfy Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements, such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum closing bid price requirement, Nasdaq may take steps to delist our shares. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of our shares and would impair your ability to sell or purchase our shares when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we can provide no assurance that any action taken by it to restore compliance with listing requirements would allow our shares to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our shares, prevent our shares from dropping below Nasdaq’s minimum bid price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or publish negative reports about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our shares will depend on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. Currently, we have limited analyst coverage and may not obtain analyst coverage in the future. In the event we obtain
analyst coverage, we will not have any control over such analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover Lilium downgrade our shares or change their opinion of our shares, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of Lilium or fail to regularly publish reports on Lilium we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and our reduced SEC reporting requirements may make our shares less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (“JOBS Act”). We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest to occur of (i) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the closing of the Business Combination, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of Lilium Shares held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our prior second fiscal quarter, and (ii) the date on which we issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. We intend to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to most other public companies, such as an exemption from the provisions of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requiring our independent registered public accounting firm provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict if investors will find our shares less attractive because we intend to rely on certain of these exemptions and benefits under the JOBS Act. If some investors find our shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active, liquid and/or orderly trading market for our shares and the market price and trading volume of our shares may be more volatile and decline significantly.
As a foreign private issuer, we will be exempt from a number of rules under the U.S. securities laws and will be permitted to file less information with the SEC than a U.S. domestic public company, which may limit the information available to our shareholders.
We are a foreign private issuer, as such term is defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. As a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to all of the disclosure requirements applicable to public companies organized within the United States. For example, we are exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act that regulate disclosure obligations and procedural requirements related to the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations applicable to a security registered under the Exchange Act, including the U.S. proxy rules under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. As long as we are a foreign private issuer, we will not be required to obtain shareholder approval for certain dilutive events, such as the establishment or material amendment of certain equity-based compensation plans, we will not be required to provide detailed executive compensation disclosure in our periodic reports, and we will be exempt from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In addition, our officers and directors will be exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and related rules with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities.
We are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. domestic public companies and will not be required to file quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K under the Exchange Act.
Also, as a foreign private issuer, we will be permitted to follow home country practice in lieu of certain Nasdaq corporate governance rules, as discussed under “Description of Securities — Periodic Reporting Under U.S. Securities Law”, including those that require listed companies to have a majority of independent directors (although all of the members of the audit committee must be independent under the Exchange Act) and independent director oversight of executive compensation, nomination of directors and corporate governance matters; have regularly scheduled executive sessions with only independent directors; and adopt and disclose a code of ethics for directors, officers and employee. Accordingly, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of listed companies that are subject to all of the applicable corporate governance requirements.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Shares, Warrants and the Offering
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, shareholders could lose confidence in our financial and other public reporting, which is likely to negatively affect our business and the market price of our Class A Shares.
Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in our implementation could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing conducted by us, or any testing conducted by our independent registered public
accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retroactive changes to our financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which is likely to negatively affect our business and the market price of our Class A Shares.
We are required to disclose changes made in our internal controls and procedures on a quarterly basis and our management is required to assess the effectiveness of these controls annually. However, for as long as we are an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We could be an “emerging growth company” for up to five years. An independent assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls could detect problems that our management’s assessment might not. Undetected material weaknesses in our internal controls could lead to financial statement restatements and require us to incur the expense of remediation, which could negatively affect our business and the market price of our Class A Shares.
The market price and trading volume of our Class A Shares and Public Warrants may be volatile and could decline significantly following the Business Combination.
Stock markets, including Nasdaq, on which our Class A Shares and Public Warrants are listed, have from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. Even if an active, liquid and orderly trading market develops and is sustained for our Class A Shares and Public Warrants, the market price of our Class A Shares and Public Warrants may be volatile and could decline significantly. In addition, the trading volume in our Class A Shares and Public Warrants may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of our Class A Shares or Public Warrants declines significantly, you may be unable to resell your securities at or above the price you purchased them for. We cannot assure you that the market price of our Class A Shares and Public Warrants will not fluctuate widely or decline significantly in the future in response to a number of factors, including, among others, the following:
|●||the realization of any of the risk factors presented in this prospectus;|
|●||actual or anticipated differences in our estimates, or in the estimates of analysts, for our revenues, results of operations, liquidity or financial condition;|
|●||additions and departures of key personnel;|
|●||failure to comply with the requirements of Nasdaq;|
|●||failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or other laws or regulations;|
|●||future issuances, sales or resales, or anticipated issuances, sales or resales, of our Class A Shares;|
|●||the performance and market valuations of other similar companies;|
|●||broad disruptions in the financial markets, including sudden disruptions in the credit markets;|
|●||material and adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the markets and the broader global economy;|
|●||speculation in the press or investment community;|
|●||actual, potential or perceived control, accounting or reporting problems; and|
|●||changes in accounting principles, policies and guidelines.|
In the past, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of their shares. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on us.
If securities or industry analysts publish inaccurate or unfavorable research or cease publishing research about us, our share price and trading volume could decline significantly.
The market for our Class A Shares depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades its opinions about our Class A Shares, publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about us, or ceases publishing about us regularly, demand for our Class A Shares could decrease, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline significantly.
Future issuances of preferred shares or other equity securities may adversely affect us, including the market price of our Class A Shares, and may be dilutive to existing shareholders.
In the future, we may issue preferred shares or other equity ranking senior to our Class A Shares. Preferred shares have, and those other securities will generally have, priority upon liquidation. Such securities also may be governed by an instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our Class A Shares. Because our decision to issue equity in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. As a result, future capital raising efforts may reduce the market price of our Class A Shares and be dilutive to existing shareholders.
The future exercise of registration rights may adversely affect the market price of Class A Shares.
Certain Lilium shareholders have registration rights for restricted securities under the terms of our Registration Rights Agreement with the Sponsor and certain other shareholders of Lilium, which provide for customary “demand” and “piggyback” registration rights for certain shareholders. In addition, we expect to enter into a registration rights agreement granting customary registration rights to Azul in respect of the Class A Shares issuable upon the exercise of the Azul Warrants. Sales of a substantial number of Class A Shares pursuant to the resale registration statement in the public market could occur at any time the registration statement remains effective. In addition, certain registration rights holders can request underwritten offerings to sell their securities. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our Class A Shares. See also “Description of Securities – Registration Rights and Lock-Up Arrangements.”
Risks for any holders of SPAC Warrants following the Business Combination
Following the Business Combination, Lilium may redeem the SPAC Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to holders of SPAC Warrants, thereby making such warrants worthless. Lilium will have the ability to redeem outstanding SPAC Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant, provided that the closing price of the Class A Shares equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for share subdivisions, share capitalizations, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which a notice of redemption is sent to the warrant holders. Lilium will not redeem the warrants as described above unless a registration statement under the Securities Act covering the Class A Shares issuable upon exercise of such warrants is effective and a current prospectus relating to those Class A Shares is available throughout the 30-day redemption period. If and when the SPAC Warrants become redeemable by Lilium, Lilium may exercise its redemption right even if it is unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding SPAC Warrants could force holders of SPAC Warrants (i) to exercise their SPAC Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for such holders to do so, (ii) to sell their SPAC Warrants at the then-current market price when they might otherwise wish to hold the SPAC Warrants, or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding SPAC Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of the SPAC Warrants.
In addition, Lilium will have the ability to redeem the outstanding SPAC Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.10 per warrant if, among other things, the closing price of the Class A Shares equals or exceeds $10.00 per share (as adjusted for share sub-divisions, share dividends, rights issuances, subdivisions, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) on the trading day prior to the date on which a notice of redemption is sent to the warrant holders. If trading prices for the Class A Shares have not exceeded the $10.00 per share threshold at which the Public SPAC Warrants would become redeemable, holders will be able to exercise their SPAC Warrants prior to redemption for a number of Class A Shares determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of the Class A Shares.
The value received upon exercise of the SPAC Warrants (1) may be less than the value the holders would have received if they had exercised their SPAC Warrants at a later time where the underlying share price is higher and (2) may not compensate the holders for the value of the SPAC Warrants.
Our ability to utilize our net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations, including losses as a result of the Business Combination.
We have incurred and are likely to continue incurring significant tax losses, which may be limited in their usability under German and other tax laws, in particular following significant shareholder changes. Although we do not expect the Business Combination nor any of the ownership changes in the course of past financing rounds to result in a forfeiture of our German tax loss attributes, the realization of future tax savings from such tax loss attributes depends on the tax authorities’ acceptance of their continued availability and our ability to generate future taxable income in Germany against which such losses can be offset.
Our tax residency might change if Germany ratifies the MLI and changes its provisional election on the corporate residence tie-breaker.
Our sole tax residency in Germany for purposes of the convention between Germany and the Netherlands for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income (the “German-Dutch tax treaty”) is subject to the application of the provisions on tax residency as stipulated in the German-Dutch tax treaty as effective as of the date of this prospectus. However, among others, Germany and the Netherlands entered into a Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (“MLI”). The MLI operates to amend bilateral tax treaties between participating states, provided there is a match between certain options made by the relevant states. The MLI provides, amongst others, for an amendment of relevant treaty rules regarding tax residency for purposes of relevant tax treaties. According to its elections, the Netherlands applies such deviating rules on tax residency, i.e., it did not opt out. With regard to Germany, provisional statements made at the time of signing the MLI indicate that it is intended to opt-out of the application of such provisions. However, given that the MLI has to date not been ratified in Germany and the options provided for in the MLI remain subject to discussion, it cannot be ruled out that Germany ultimately opts to amend the current rules regarding tax residency in line with the option exercised by the Netherlands. If Germany changed its provisional view on the election, the MLI rules on tax residency would become applicable to the German-Dutch tax treaty. In this case, the competent authorities of the Netherlands and Germany shall endeavor to determine by mutual agreement the sole tax residency of the Company. During the period in which a mutual agreement between both states is absent, we may not be entitled to any relief or exemption from tax provided by the German-Dutch tax treaty. During such period, there would also be a risk that both Germany and the Netherlands would levy dividend withholding tax on distributions by us, in addition to the risk of double taxation on the profits of the Company itself.
The rights of shareholders in companies subject to Dutch corporate law differ in material respects from the rights of shareholders of corporations incorporated in the United States.
We are a public limited liability company incorporated under Dutch law. Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of association, our internal rules and policies and by the laws governing companies incorporated in the Netherlands. The rights of shareholders may be different from the rights and obligations of shareholders in companies governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. The role of the management board in a Dutch company is also materially different, and cannot be compared to, the role of a board of directors in a corporation incorporated in the United States. In the performance of their duties, our management board is required by Dutch law to consider the interests of our company and the sustainable success of our business, with an aim to creating long-term value, taking into account the interests of our shareholders, our employees and other stakeholders of the Company, in all cases with due observation of the principles of reasonableness and fairness. It is possible that some of these parties will have interests that are different from, or in addition to, your interests as a shareholder.
We are not obligated to, and do not, comply with all best practice provisions of the Dutch Corporate Governance Code.
We will be subject to the Dutch Corporate Governance Code (the “DCGC”). The DCGC contains both principles and best practice provisions on corporate governance that regulate relations between the management board and the General Meeting of shareholders and matters in respect of financial reporting, auditors, disclosure, compliance and enforcement standards. The DCGC is based on a “comply or explain” principle. Accordingly, companies are required to disclose in their annual reports (which are filed in the Netherlands) whether they comply with the provisions of the DCGC. If they do not comply with those provisions (for example, because of a conflicting Nasdaq requirement), the Company is required to give the reasons for such noncompliance. The DCGC applies to Dutch companies listed on a government-recognized stock exchange, whether in the Netherlands or elsewhere, including Nasdaq.
We acknowledge the importance of good corporate governance. However, we do not comply with all the provisions of the DCGC, to a large extent because such provisions conflict with or are inconsistent with the corporate governance rules of Nasdaq and U.S. securities laws, or because we believe such provisions do not reflect customary practices of global companies listed on Nasdaq. Any such noncompliance may affect your rights as a shareholder, and you may not have the same level of protection as a shareholder in a Dutch company that fully complies with the DCGC.
Shareholders may not be able to exercise preemptive rights and, as a result, may experience substantial dilution upon future issuances of shares.
In the event of an issuance of our Class A Shares and our Class B Shares, subject to certain exceptions, each shareholder will have a preemptive right that is pro rata to the total amount of Class A Shares or Class B Shares (as applicable) held by such shareholder. These preemptive rights have been excluded by a resolution proposed by the management and adopted by the General Meeting. Our Board is authorized for a five-year period to issue shares or grant rights to subscribe for shares up to our authorized share capital and to limit or exclude preemptive rights in connection therewith, which could cause existing shareholders to experience substantial dilution of their holdings.
Our dual class structure has the effect of giving a greater percentage of voting rights than economic rights to Daniel Wiegand, our founder and Chief Executive Officer.
Class B Shares have three times as many votes per share, for a total of 36 votes per share on any matter submitted for shareholder approval, as opposed to the Class A Shares, which have 12 votes per share. As of September 14, 2021, Daniel Wiegand, our Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer, holds all of the issued and outstanding Class B Shares and controls 22.0% of the total voting power in the Company. Accordingly, Mr. Wiegand, like all shareholders with greater than 10% voting power in the Company, will be able to call a special meeting of shareholders to propose matters for shareholder approval such as the removal or election of directors or amendments to our organization documents. Mr. Wiegand may have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. For information about our dual class structure, see the section titled “Description of Securities.”
Investors may have difficulty enforcing civil liabilities against us or the members of our management and our Board.
We are incorporated in the Netherlands, and we will conduct substantially all of our operations in Germany or Europe through our subsidiaries. A majority of our management and our directors are not United States residents and do not have significant assets in the United States, and the majority of our assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible, or may be very difficult, to serve process on our representatives or us in the United States, or to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts against our representatives or us based on civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States. There is no treaty between the United States and the Netherlands for the mutual recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters. Therefore, a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any federal or state court in the United States based on civil liability, whether or not predicated solely upon the U.S. federal securities laws, would not be enforceable in the Netherlands unless the underlying claim is re-litigated before a Dutch court of competent jurisdiction. U.S. investors will be unable to enforce any judgments obtained in U.S. courts in civil and commercial matters, including judgments under the U.S. federal securities laws, against us, members of our management and our directors. In addition, there is doubt as to whether a Dutch court would impose civil liability on us or the members of our management or our directors in an original action predicated solely upon the U.S. federal securities laws brought in a court of competent jurisdiction in the Netherlands against us or our management or directors.
Dutch, German and European insolvency laws are substantially different from U.S. insolvency laws and may offer our shareholders less protection than they would have under U.S. insolvency laws.
As a Dutch public limited liability company and as a company with its ‘centre of main interest’ in Germany, we are subject to Dutch and German insolvency laws in the event any insolvency proceedings are initiated against us including, among other things, Regulation (EU) 2015/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of May 20, 2015 on insolvency proceedings. Should courts in another European country determine that the insolvency laws of that country apply to us in accordance with and subject to such EU regulations, the courts in that country could have jurisdiction over the insolvency proceedings initiated against us. Insolvency laws in Germany, the Netherlands or the relevant other European country, if any, may offer our shareholders less protection than they would have under U.S. insolvency laws and make it more difficult for our shareholders to recover the amount they could expect to recover in a liquidation under U.S. insolvency laws.
Shareholders may be subject to limitations on transfer of their shares.
Our shares are transferable on the transfer agent’s books. However, the transfer agent may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the transfer agent may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of shares generally when our books or the transfer agent’s books are closed, or at any time if we or the transfer agent deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.
We may be or may become a PFIC, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders.
If we or any of our subsidiaries is a passive foreign investment company (a “PFIC”) for any taxable year, or portion thereof, that is included in the holding period of a beneficial owner of our ordinary shares that is a U.S. Holder, such U.S. Holder (as defined in the section entitled “Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders”), may be subject to certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences and may be subject to additional reporting requirements. It is uncertain whether we or any of our subsidiaries will be treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the current or any subsequent tax year. If we determine that we and/or any of our subsidiaries is a PFIC for any taxable year, we intend to provide a U.S. Holder with such information necessary for the U.S. Holder to make and maintain a QEF Election (as defined in the section entitled “Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders”) with respect to us and/or such subsidiaries, but there can be no assurance that we will have timely knowledge of our status as a PFIC in the future or of the required information to be provided.
See the section entitled “Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders” for a more detailed discussion with respect to our PFIC status. Prospective U.S. Holders of Class A Shares or Public Warrants are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible application of the PFIC rules to them.
We do not anticipate paying dividends.
Under Dutch law, we may only pay dividends to the extent our shareholders’ equity (eigen vermogen) exceeds the sum of the paid-up and called-up share capital plus the reserves required to be maintained by Dutch law or by our articles of association and (if it concerns a distribution of profits) after adoption of the annual accounts by our General Meeting from which it appears that such distribution is allowed. Our Board shall make a proposal to the General Meeting which amount of the profit shall be allocated to the Company's profit reserves and which amount of the profit will be available for distribution. Our Board is permitted, subject to certain requirements, to declare interim dividends without the approval of the General Meeting. Subject to such restrictions, any future determination or recommendation to pay (interim) dividends will depend on a number of factors, including our results of operations, earnings, cash flow, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions, capital investment requirements, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors considered relevant by the Board.
Our Board may decide that all or part of our remaining profits shall be added to our reserves. After such reservation, any remaining profit will be at the disposal of the General Meeting at the proposal of our Board, subject to the applicable restrictions of Dutch law.
Dividends and other distributions shall be made payable not later than the date determined by the corporate body that declares the (interim) dividend. Claims to dividends and other distributions not made within five years from the date that such dividends or distributions became payable will lapse and any such amounts will be considered to have been forfeited to us (verjaring).
Provisions of our articles of association or Dutch corporate law might deter acquisition bids for us that our shareholders might consider to be favorable and prevent or frustrate any attempt to replace or remove the Board at the time of such acquisition bid.
Certain provisions of our articles of association may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of the Board or effect a change in the composition of the Board. These include:
|●||the General Meeting will adopt a resolution to authorize the Board to issue Class A Shares and to limit or exclude preemptive rights on those Class A Shares, which could enable the Board to dilute the holdings of an acquirer by issuing Class A Shares to other parties;|
|●||a provision that our directors can only be removed (other than pursuant to a proposal by the Board) by our General Meeting by a majority of at least two thirds of the votes cast, provided such votes represent more than half of the issued share capital; if and to the extent permitted by law, our Executive Directors may also be suspended by the Board; and|
|●||a requirement that certain matters, including an amendment of our articles of association, a legal merger, legal demerger or a resolution to dissolve the Company, may only be brought to the shareholders for a vote upon a proposal by the Board.|
Such provisions could discourage a takeover attempt and impair the ability of shareholders to benefit from a change in control and realize any potential change of control premium. This may adversely affect the market price of our Class A Shares. See the section titled “Description of Securities.”
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements provide our current expectations or forecasts of future events. Forward-looking statements include statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, intentions, assumptions and other statements that are not historical facts. Words or phrases such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “objective,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will” and “would,” or similar words or phrases, or the negatives of those words or phrases, may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not necessarily mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Examples of forward-looking statements in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our disclosure concerning our operations, cash flows, financial position and dividend policy.
Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties. The risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to:
|●||Business or supply chain disruptions arising from the COVID-19 pandemic;|
|●||Any disruption from the Business Combination to our current business plans and operations or potential difficulties in employee retention as a result of the Business Combination;|
|●||We may not realize the anticipated benefits of the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination;|
|●||If the Business Combination’s benefits do not meet the expectations of investors, shareholders or financial analysts, the market price of our securities may decline.|
|●||The market price of our securities may be volatile due to a variety of factors, such as changes in the competitive environment in which we operate, the regulatory framework of the industry in which we operate, developments in our business and operations, and any future changes in our capital structure;|
|●||Our ability to maintain the listing of our securities on the Nasdaq;|
|●||Our ability to implement business plans, operating models, forecasts, and other expectations and identify and realize additional business opportunities;|
|●||General economic downturns or general systematic changes to the industry in which we operate, including a negative safety incident involving one of our competitors that results in decreased demand for our jets or services;|
|●||We and our current and future business partners will be unable to successfully develop and commercialize our business, or experience significant delays in doing so;|
|●||We may never achieve or sustain profitability;|
|●||We will need to raise additional capital to execute our business plan, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all;|
|●||We may experience difficulties in managing our growth, moving between development phases or expanding our operations;|
|●||Third-party suppliers, component manufacturers or service provider partners not being able to fully and timely meet their obligations or deliver the high-level customer service that our customers will expect;|
|●||The Lilium Jet not performing as expected, delays in producing the Lilium Jets or delays in seeking full certification of all aspects of the Lilium Jet, causing overall delays in the anticipated time frame for our commercialization and launch;|
|●||The technology necessary to successfully operate our business, as contemplated in the business models, is delayed, unavailable, not available at commercially anticipated prices, not sufficiently tested, not certified for passenger use or otherwise unavailable to us based on our current expectations and expected needs;|
|●||Any identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting which, if not corrected, could adversely affect the reliability of our financial reporting;|
|●||Product liability lawsuits, civil or damages claims or regulatory proceedings relating to our jets, technology, intellectual property or services;|
|●||Our inability to secure or protect our intellectual property; and|
|●||Negative publicity about us, our employees, directors, management, shareholders, affiliated parties or our founders.|
Forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and are based on potentially inaccurate assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expected or implied by the forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in forward-looking statements for many reasons, including the factors described under the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. Accordingly, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus. We undertake no obligation to publicly revise any forward-looking statement to reflect circumstances or events after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should, however, review the factors and risks we describe in the reports we will file from time to time with the SEC after the date of this prospectus.
In addition, statements that “Lilium believes” or “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this prospectus. And while we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and you are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.
Although we believe the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements were reasonable at the time made, we cannot guarantee future results, level of activity, performance or achievements. Moreover, neither Lilium nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of any of these forward-looking statements. You should carefully consider the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section in connection with the forward looking statements contained in this prospectus and any subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements that may be issued by Lilium or persons acting on our behalf.
USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the Class A Shares and Private Warrants offered by the selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the selling securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales. We will pay certain expenses associated with the registration of the securities covered by this prospectus, as described in the section titled “Plan of Distribution.”
We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $227.0 million from the exercise of the Warrants and Specified Options, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Warrants and Specified Options for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants and Specified Options for general corporate purposes. We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants and Specified Options. There is no assurance that the holders of the Warrants or Specified Options will elect to exercise any or all of such Warrants or Specified Options. To the extent that any of the Warrants or Specified Options are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the Warrants and Specified Options will decrease.
DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE
The offering price of the Class A Shares underlying the Private Warrants offered hereby is determined by reference to the exercise price of the Private Warrants of $11.50 per share. The Class A Shares and the Public Warrants are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “LILM” and “LILMW,” respectively.
We cannot currently determine the price or prices at which shares of our Class A Stock or Private Warrants may be sold by the selling securityholders under this prospectus.
MARKET INFORMATION FOR CLASS A SHARES AND DIVIDEND POLICY
Our Class A Shares and Public Warrants are currently listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbols “LILM” and “LILMW,” respectively. Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, our Class A Shares and our Public Warrants were listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbols “QELL” and “QELLW,” respectively. As of September 14, 2021, immediately following the completion of the Business Combination, there were 60 holders of record of our Class A Shares and two holders of record of our SPAC Warrants. Such numbers do not include beneficial owners holding our securities through nominee names. We currently do not intend to list the Private Warrants offered hereby on any stock exchange or stock market. Our Class C Shares are not registered and we do not currently intend to list the Class C Shares on any exchange or stock market.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares and we do not anticipate paying any dividends on our ordinary shares for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain any earnings for future operations.
Under Dutch law, we may only pay dividends to the extent our shareholders’ equity (eigen vermogen) exceeds the sum of the paid-up and called-up share capital plus the reserves required to be maintained by Dutch law or by our articles of association and (if it concerns a distribution of profits) after adoption of the annual accounts by our General Meeting from which it appears that such distribution is allowed. Subject to such restrictions, any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of the Board and will depend on a number of factors, including our results of operations, earnings, cash flow, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions, capital investment requirements, restrictions imposed by ap